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Know Your Blood In Our Bodies - Blood is a body tissue contained within red blood vessels warnannya. The red color that the situation does not remain dependent on the amount of oxygen and carbon dioxide levels in it. Blood that contains carbon diogsida deep red color. The presence of oxygen in the blood is taken by way of breathing, and the substance is very useful in the event of combustion / metabolism in the body. Vikositas / viscosity of blood is thicker than water which has BJ 1.041 to 1.065, temperature 380C, and pH 7.37 to 7.45.

Blood circulating in the body forever because of the work or the heart pumping. During the blood circulating in the blood vessels will remain dilute, but when he came out of the veins then it will be frozen. Freezing can be prevented by mixing path into the blood a little anti-freeze / citrus natrikus.And this situation will be very handy if the blood necessary for a blood transfusion. 

In a healthy body there is blood or adult of approximately 1/13 of body weight or approximately 4-5 liters. Circumstances that amount to each person is not the same, depending on age, occupation, state of the heart or blood vessels. 

A. Blood Functions

a. As a transporter that is:

  • Taking oxygen / combustion substances from the lungs to tissues throughout the body's circulation.
  • Transporting carbon dioxide from the tissues to the lungs removed through.
  • Taking nutrients from the small intestine to be circulated and distributed to all tissues / organs.
  • Lifting / remove substances that are not useful for the body to be removed through the kidneys and skin.
b. As the body's defense system against disease and toxins in the body by the hand of lymphocyte and antibody / anti poison substances. 
c. Hot spread throughout the body. 

B. Blood Composition

Composition of blood: 

  • Air    : 91%
  • Protein: 3% (albumin, globulin, protombin dan fibrinigen)
  • Mineral: 0.9% (Natrium Chloride, natrium bicarbonate, garam phosphate, magnesium, kalsium, dan zat learners).
  • Organic matter: 0.1% (glucose, fatty uric acid, creatinine, cholesterol, and amino acids).

C. The sections Blood 

C.a. Blood Cells 1. Red blood cells (erythrocytes)

Red blood cells (erythrocytes) shaped like a disc / bikonkaf and has no core. Diameter of approximately 7.7 units (0.007 mm), can not move. The number of approximately 5 million in 1 mm3 (41/2 million). The color is reddish yellow, because it contains a substance called hemoglobin, the red color will increase if it contains a lot of oxygen. 

functions of red blood cells is the binding of oxygen from the lungs to be distributed to all body tissues and bind carbon dioxide from the body tissue to expelled through the lungs. Binding of oxygen and carbon dioxide is carried by hemoglobin that has bound with oxygen is called oxyhemoglobin (Hb + 4 Hb oxygen-oxygen) so oxygen is transported throughout the body as oxyhemoglobin from the later after arriving in the network will be released: Hb + Hb oxygen-oxygen, and so on. Hb was going to bound with carbon dioxide and carbon dioxide called hemoglobin (Hb + Hb carbon dioxide-carbon dioxide) in which the carbon dioxide will be released in the lungs. 

red blood cells (erythrocytes) are produced in the red bone marrow, spleen and liver . The process of its formation in the bone marrow through several stages. Initially large and contains does not contain a nucleus and then loaded with hemoglobin and hemoglobin eventually lose their nuclei and ready circulated in the blood circulation which will then circulate in the body for now significantly less than 114-115 days, after which it will die. Erythrocyte hemoglobin out of the dead will break down into two substances containing hematin Fe is useful to create a new erythrocytes and hemoglobin is a substance contained in eritrisit useful to bind oxygen and carbon dioxide.  

Amount normal in adults is approximately 11 , 5-15 grams in 100 cc of blood. Normal Hb 11.5 mg% of women and men 13.0 mg%. Red blood cells need protein because its structure is composed of amino acids and also require iron, so iron-balanced diet is necessary.  

bodies in the number of red blood cells can be reduced, as well as the amount of hemoglobin in red blood cells. If both are reduced, a condition called anemia, which is usually caused by a great perdarahaan, disease lysis of erythrocytes, and the place of manufacture erythrocytes disrupted. 

2. White blood cells (leukocytes)

The form and nature of different leukocytes with erythrocytes nature when we look under the microscope you will see that its shape can vary and can be moved by means of an artificial leg (pseudopodia), has a variety of cell nucleus so that it can be distinguished according to the cell nucleus, the color is clear (colorless), the amount in 1 mm3 of blood is approximately 6000-9000.  

Functions as the body's defense is to kill and eat the germs / bacteria that enters the network RES (reticuloendothelial system), place inside pembiakannya spleen and lymph nodes; as the carrier is transporting / carrying of fatty substances through the intestinal wall into the blood vessels of the spleen continues.  

cells in addition to leukocytes in the blood vessels are also found in all body tissue. In most diseases are caused by the entry of germs / infections, the number of leukocytes in the blood will be more than usual. This is due to leukocyte cells that normally live in the lymph nodes, is now circulating in the blood to defend the body against disease. If the number of leukocytes in the blood exceeds 10000/mm3 called leukocytosis and less than 6000 is called leukopenia. 

Various leukocytes include: 

a. Agranulosit 
leukocyte cells that do not have granules in it, which consists of: 

  • Lymphocytes, leukocytes sorts generated from RES tissue and lymph nodes, there is a great shape and small, in the cytoplasm and its core there is a large gland, the number is approximately 20% -15% and function to kill and feed on bacteria that get into jarigan body.
  • Monocytes. Most are made in the red marrow, larger than lymphocytes, function as phagocytes and the number of 34%. Under the microscope it appears that protoplasmanya wide, blue gray color have little red spots. Spherical cell nucleus and long, mauve color.

b. Granulocytes 
Also called granular leukocyte consists of: 
- Neutrophils
also called polymorphonuclear leukocytes Or, have a cell nucleus which is sometimes as separate, protoplasmanya many fine spots / glands, the amount of 60% -50%.  
- Eusinofil 
size and shape almost together with neutrophils but larger granules and cytoplasm, the number is approximately 24%.  
- Basophils
These cells are smaller than eusinofil but have irregular shaped nuclei, in the protoplasmanya contained large granules. The number of half part of the red marrow, its function is unknown. 

3. Freezing cells (platelets)

Platelets are small objects that die shapes and sizes vary, some round and oval, white color, normal adult 200.000-300.000/mm3. 

function plays an important role in blood clotting. If the number is less than normal, then if there is no blood wound quickly froze causing continuous bleeding. Platelets is called thrombocytosis more than 300,000. Platelets less than 200,000 so-called thrombocytopenia.  
(Association of Indonesian Cupping therapists) in the blood plasma contained a substance that also helps the blood clotting events, namely Ca2 + and fibrinogen. Fibrinogen start work when the body gets injured. when we exit wound, blood, platelet rupture and release substances called trombokinase. Trombokinasi will meet with the help of Ca2 + prothrombin with thrombin would be.Thrombin will meet with fibrin threads which is a smooth, form an irregular network location, which will hold blood cells, thus there was freezing. Prothrombin is made ​​in the liver and to make the necessary vitamin K, vitamin K thus essential for blood clotting. 

Cb Blood Plasma

fluid portion of blood that forms about 5% of body weight, is a medium of circulation of blood elements that form red blood cells, the cells white blood cells and blood clotting as well as media transport organic and inorganic materials from a tissue or organ.  

At plasma albumin kidney disease down so that there is a large leakage of albumin through the kidney glomerulus. Almost 90% of the blood plasma is composed of water, in addition there are also other substances dissolved in it. 

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